This demographic balance could occur when the birth rate and death rate are equal. But be careful, because this is not always the case. Mali's population in 2017 was approximately 18.5 million, up from 12 million just a decade prior. It is important to distinguish birth rates—which are defined as the number of live births per 1,000 women in the total population—from fertility rates. Germany’s population has been in decline since 1974, while the United Kingdom (UK), Belgium, Luxembourg and Denmark have experienced zero growth since the beginning of the 1980s (ESCEC 1986). The average number of children per woman (total fertility rate) for all member states except Ireland is less than two children. The momentum of past and current demographic trends may also take several generations to work itself out. If Mali's high total fertility rate per woman remains the same or even continues to grow, its population will essentially explode. Fertility refers to the number of live births. Population momentum is a consequence of the demographic transition.Population momentum explains why a population will continue to grow even if the fertility rate declines. Fertility rate, average number of children born to women during their reproductive years.For the population in a given area to remain stable, an overall total fertility rate of 2.1 is needed, assuming no immigration or emigration occurs.. Zero population growth refers to a population that is unchanging – it is neither growing, nor declining; the growth rate is zero. The total fertility rate can be calculated using age-specific birth rates. Demographers use several measures of fertility. Striving for zero population growth via voluntary fertility decline, however, has nothing to do with population control. Family planning programs that expand access to modern contraceptive education, services, and supplies operate for the benefit of the individuals who may choose to participate — or not — at their own discretion. Several factors help explain why the U.S. population growth rate is slowing: Declining fertility rates, more deaths Forty-two states and the District of Columbia all had a … Population momentum occurs because it is not only the number of children per woman that determine population growth, but also the number of women in reproductive age. Another criticism of the zero population growth movement is that countries with lower fertility rates actually do more damage to the environment. Mali's 2017 growth rate of 3.02 was the result of fertility rates doubling in only 23 years. THIRUVANATHAPURAM: Kerala is heading for a significant phase in its demographic transition with the state moving towards achieving zero population growth rate, which will lead to scarcity of labour. Replacement level fertility will lead to zero population growth only if mortality rates remain constant and migration has no effect. Fertility and Birth Rates. 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