Some, however, use quantitative data, perhaps gained from surveys, or from existing statistics (for example crime rates, employees' salaries, student achievement). Data collection methods in a case study may involve interviews, observations, questionnaires, checklists, analysis of recorded data and opinionnaires. There are numerous ways that data can be collected. observations & interviews). 2-3) the usefulness of case study research lies in the fact that it encourages research methods that help measure thinking over an ongoing period, for example by multiple interviews. Your institution may well have a review board or committee with guidelines you need to adhere to, and whose approval you need to seek. The first is rich detail in recording events, interviews, and o bservations. Provisional research conclusions were subsequently sent back to the respondents via e-mail and the resulting feedback discussion was annotated.". Almost every year a hurricane blast through Florida and takes its toll on the business, industry and affects the lives and dollars of the company and its workers. A research design is a plan for getting from your original question or hypothesis to obtaining workable results from your research, on which you can base defensible conclusions. endstream endobj 796 0 obj<>/Size 749/Type/XRef>>stream Opoku, R.A. and Williams, E.B. A notable use has been the study of different cultural or social groups, or urban neighbourhoods (see "How to... use ethnographic methods and participant observation"). x�b```b``sc`c`��� �� �@Q�5@��p���)&)�9/��|�e�r�8��-���V1Y3e���pT�W��{�W��f�х�y{�,:�����c-"�y{��F�� ��d���ĩ�av�BV��y{]�b����;Y���������^��< P퇐4y�(����y:��� He or she needs to be a good listener, paying attention not only to what is said, but also to what is not said explicitly, perhaps indicated by mood or body language. You need to gain their informed consent, ensuring that they understand the purpose of your study and are not deceived; will come to no harm as a result of your investigations; and that their privacy and confidentiality is protected. Case Study Research Narrative theory research analysis approach involves in-depth examination of a case under study. As Rowley puts it (2002): "Triangulation uses evidence from different sources to corroborate the same fact or finding.". Rahim and Baksh (2003, p. 32) define the case study protocol as follows: "A case study protocol is a record (normally a document) that contains the methods, procedures and general rules that will be followed in using instruments of data collection. 0000003526 00000 n 3. considers all the major rival interpretations, and explores each of them in turn, should address the most significant aspect of the case study. As a qualitative research method, case studies should be used when the behavior, intervention or independent variable is not manipulated. The most common techniques used to collect data for case studies are: personal interviews; direct observation; psychometric tests ; archival records; Advantages of Case Studies. The case study may use a variety of ways to collect information, depending on the nature of the case and with the aim of making it possible to cross-study, or analysis angles. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Case study data collection is based on two central tenets. Because visual communication precedes verbal, visual data collection methods are a powerful way of helping individuals retrieve unconscious thoughts. The data collection process demands that the researcher be actively involved, asking the right questions which link to those that are central to the study, in a manner which does not alienate the subject. It does not proceed in a linear fashion; it is not neat. Quite often this criticism relates not to the method as such, but to the way case studies are presented: the author does not leave a clear audit trail detailing his or her research and explaining the conclusions. (2010), "Stakeholder management online: an empirical analysis of US and Swedish political party web sites", Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, Vol. If case study research is never a soft option, the collection and analysis of data can be particularly challenging. A Case Study of Sensor Data Collection and Analysis in Smart City: Provenance in Smart Food Supply Chain. Exploratory: the case study is used to define questions and hypotheses – or to test out a research procedure – for a further piece of research, such as a large-scale survey. [�i4�F��k���(��Z ��R�����]�v��xQ�9Ih"N#��Y�9��3�#�����G�S��9���R��,�Lۼ�aÔ+��� ��X|������` j�� If you conduct a pilot case study, this will help you refine your plans for collecting data, for example the type of questions you might want to ask your interview subjects. Margaret Adolphus talks about what case study research is, and sets out the best approaches to data collection and analysis. The researcher needs to establish that x causes y, and show that there are no other factors that could have played a part in y. This methodological richness is one of the great strengths of case studies as a method. 2816) mentions five particular analytical techniques: Of these, Yin (2009) describes pattern matching as "one of the most desirable" (location no. Essay on urbanization for asl essay writing on save nature syracuse essay questions essay on planting trees for class 5. •In the collection of data we have to be systematic. 0000011843 00000 n The first task is to decide what it is you are trying to find out by defining your research question. Some case study research goes beyond being a type of qualitative research, by using a mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. (Note that this is different from being able to replicate the results in another case.) You need a case where people will be helpful, leading you to key informants, providing access to documents, and allowing you to interview or survey staff. Providing inferential information, for example, about networks, which can be deduced from distribution lists etc. 2816), while cross-case analysis is obviously important in multiple case studies. 0000028323 00000 n 3, pp. They may help with the organisation of your material, but you need to come up with your own codes. With case study evidence coming from so many sources, there is no such fixed cut-off point, so it can be difficult to know when to stop. Notes, from interviews, observation, document analysis, etc. This is usually what businesses and persons affected by a hurricane ask each other. 688-701, available at: [accessed 9 December 2010]. Cepeda, G. and Martin, D. (2005), "A review of case studies publishing in Management Decision: guides and criteria for achieving quality in qualitative research", Management Decision, Vol. 43 No. Case studies tend to provide detailed, in-depth information. It also requires a skill common to all qualitative researchers: the ability to interpret as well as analyse, to see through spin, and if necessary, check information with another source. Get ready to publish a teaching case study, How to... use secondary data and archive material, How to... use ethnographic methods and participant observation, A review of case studies publishing in Management Decision: guides and criteria for achieving quality in qualitative research,, Case study research and network theory: birds of a feather, Stakeholder management online: an empirical analysis of US and Swedish political party web sites, Case study method for new product development in engineer-to-order organizations, Case Study Research: Theory, Methods and Practice. 0000004634 00000 n It can be used to expand on a particular theme unearthed by a survey. 0000005694 00000 n 0000002174 00000 n The final screening of cases involves selecting the case(s) which best fit your design, where you can obtain the best data, and where you can obtain easy access to documents, people and other information. If data collection for case studies is difficult, data analysis is no less so. 2495) the data from the case study is often merged with the report, whereas it should be stored in such a way that it can easily be accessed and viewed by another researcher. The questions need to be suitable: large enough to provide sufficient scope for research, but new enough not to have already been answered. In other words, quantitative data analysis is “a field where it is not at all difficult to carry out an analysis which is simply wrong, or inappropriate for your data or purposes. 0 Direct observation occurs when the researcher observes but does not participate. 0000002674 00000 n 8T�EQ������'=����k�������[����h$P�����^��r��*Mu�i�v|-! Case study research is a qualitative research method that is used to examine contemporary real-life situations and apply the findings of the case to the problem under study. The study aims to explore the case study method with the formation of questions, data collection procedures and analysis, followed by how and on which position the saturation is achieved in developing a centralized Shariah governance framework for Islamic banks in Bangladesh. (Eds), Handbook of Complementary Methods in Education Research, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., NJ. The result is a cyclical process of theory, producing a research process giving rise to data from which fresh theory can be formulated, and fresh research carried out. Case study research, in which the subject of the research is studied within its social, political, organisational, or economic context, is one of the commonest approaches across the social and management sciences. 226-248. See "How to... conduct interviews". Yin, R.K. (2009), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 4th ed., e-book, Sage, CA [accessed 20 December 2010]. Cepeda and Martin (2005) see theory building as a key stage in the case study research process. Guidelines for writing the report, which may include a tentative outline. For example, a school might illustrate an important theoretical point, but if teachers and pupils refuse to engage and you can't gain access to classrooms, it will not be of much use. 0000032854 00000 n 0000012803 00000 n 0000005181 00000 n 2, pp. Another definition is given by Dul and Hak: "A case study is a study in which a) one case (single case study) or a small number of cases (comparative case study) in their real life context are selected, and b) scores obtained from these cases are analysed in a qualitative manner" (Dul and Hak, 2007, p. 4). The interviews were transcribed, analysed, and validated with the interviewees. ���_��W�+��� This type of data collection is very versatile and can be used to analyze simple and complex subjects. Hence it is typically used for exploratory research and data analysis. This may take the form of a proposition. Case study research is neither a quick nor a soft option. 0000017566 00000 n Case studies involve detail – that is, they produce lots of information, which can come from multiple data sources. Exploratory, descriptive and explanatory case studies are three such categories. According to Woodside (2010, pp. Documents collected during the case study, which should be accompanied by an annotated bibliography. All research needs to conform to the following quality criteria: 1. 4. 61 No. External validity – the extent to which it is possible to generalise from the findings of case studies. Both types of case study design have their advantages. Helping make sure that people's names are spelt correctly. 0000019547 00000 n Intensive Study. One major advantage of the case study in psychology is the potential for the development of novel hypotheses for later testing. i�!lAEV��R�^�l1�.%�0����z���!&�FSlt{=�|a�{��W���������{�h��{�`&�������������\\�� @X@!%ec� �466�iM��� R�����e��P1FAA��K\��5�O �ĶKx�&蹬������A�����#�j�6^CD2:X�qLlޠx�TpA]� �����P�\�rLX���Z�� ��� os�9�Y�� 0000028246 00000 n The most common objection to case study research is that it is insufficiently rigorous. Such a logic (Trochim, 1989) compares an empiri-cally based pattern with a predicted one (or with several alternative predic- tions). The way to make this possible is by documenting the procedures in the research. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 2013 9: 11. First, an abbreviated definition of a “case study” will help identify the circumstances when you might choose to use the case study method instead of (or as a complement to) some other research method. During this time, the auditor/evaluator would continuously record observed events of relevance. 51 No. The area is largely uncharted, in contrast to statistical analysis, where there are plenty of established techniques. Yin (2009, location no. The advantages and disadvantages of case studies as a data collection method are discussed and guidelines for their use are given. Internal validity – this seeks to establish a causal relationship, and is relevant for explanatory rather than exploratory cases. Choosing more than one method also has the advantage that one method's weakness can be balanced out by another's strengths. Cross-case synthesis. Tabular materials, including survey and quantitative data. Population – the group of people or the area you are investigating – and the sample (the subset of the population you are studying) are both important research principles (see Sampling techniques). and Baksh, M.S.N. 249-269. 1110). Any narratives composed by the researcher during investigations. 2, pp. Yin (2009, location no. Case study method is responsible for intensive study of a unit. Interviews, survey questionnaires, publically available information and audio-visual material are all potential sources of data to a researcher. Case studies involve taking a close look at a particular case – an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization. 0000012413 00000 n 1201) lists five rationales for single cases: The big advantage of multiple case studies is that evidence is provided from many sources, thus making it easier to generalise. He or she then makes a judgement as to whether or not the initial propositions have been substantiated. 0000033660 00000 n A revelatory case – one that reveals a phenomenon hitherto unexplored. A single case, on the other hand, may be considered idiosyncratic. However, with grounded theory design, the opposite happens: data are collected first of all, then theory developed, then more data are collected and compared with the theory, so the whole becomes an iterative process (see How to... implement grounded theory). When considering your theoretical position at the outset, it is important not to lose sight of an important practical consideration: will the case you have chosen (or are considering choosing) cooperate with your research? Some case studies employ only qualitative data. As such, they are most appropriate for dealing with a subject that is context dependent, complex, unusual, or where there is some ambiguity. There is some debate as to whether or not it is appropriate to use theory at this stage, but some initial delving into theory will help you further define the parameters of the case you are investigating. Case studies, on the other hand, can offer results which can be generalised against a particular theory. The case study method often involves simply observing what happens to, or reconstructing the case history of a single participant or group of individuals (such … The latter is covered in part 3 of the author guide, "How to ... write a case study". related to the fact that in case studies, data analysis begins in the field during data collection as notes are recorded, initial interpretations are made during team discussions and tentative hypotheses are tested in subsequent interviews. 0000018678 00000 n The research paradigm adopted for any specific research exercise will affect the research results by creating a slightly different view or the perspective of the study (Christensen, 2007). 0000038252 00000 n Employ both qualitative and quantitative data. For case study analysis, one of the most desirable techniques is to use a pattern-matching logic. It includes an iterative process in which initial analysis of data shapes subsequent data collection and analysis. If there is a match, and the patterns coincide, then the initial proposition is confirmed, and the internal validity of the research is strengthened. 749 0 obj <> endobj 1, pp. How you do this will vary according to your target audience. Many would say that it is not, on the grounds that case studies are too particular (although this applies less to multiple case studies). Simply select … Review methods: Literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Physical evidence from objects, including technological devices, tools, instruments, works of art, videos etc. 0000015186 00000 n Good case study design involves providing empirical data for analysis and conclusion (Gummesson, 2007), but doing so in such a way that stands up to scrutiny. It is the investigation and exploration of an event thoroughly and deeply. H�\��j� ��}��ܽX�a�eK!=д��$+4F����w&. These should have informed the data collection, and during the analysis the researcher trawls through the evidence, looking for corroborative (or not) evidence. However, given the difficulties of getting a representative case, on both practical and theoretical grounds, they suggest that purposive sampling may be more appropriate (p. 296). 0000037889 00000 n startxref A case study is an in-depth empirical investigation of a situation to understand and answer the how and why questions pertaining to a particular phenomenon.It refers to gathering information about a particular individual or a group in order to gain a holistic view about the subject of study .A case study approach is a holistic approach to observe the situation and gather valuable insights from the participants in the situation to explore phenomena. The studies identify a number of data sources. 0000001301 00000 n <]>> It can also be a useful method when the unit of analysis, or the subject under consideration, is a collective entity such as an organisation or a community. Rowley, J. Furthermore, for case studies, theory development as part of the design phase is essential, whether the ensuing case study's purpose is to develop or test theory, with theory development taking place prior to the collection of any case study data being an essential step in doing case studies (YIN, 2003a, pp.28-29). The iterative quality of grounded theory would seem to remove it from consideration in orthodox case study design. 6, pp. Broadly speaking, the positivist approach looks at objective reality, which exists beyond the human mind, whereas the interpretivist approach sees knowledge of the world as inevitably affected by the observer. Methods can include interviewing, and observation, with the researcher concurrently recording his or her thoughts. 3, pp. endstream endobj 750 0 obj<>/Metadata 86 0 R/Pages 82 0 R/StructTreeRoot 88 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 751 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 752 0 obj<> endobj 753 0 obj<> endobj 754 0 obj<> endobj 755 0 obj<> endobj 756 0 obj<>stream 2168). Seawright, J. and Gerring, J. Figuring out what to collect in addition to the interview data is the challenge. 0000020093 00000 n trailer Explanatory: the case study explores cause-effect relationships, and/or how events happen. Once you have collected, analysed and formed conclusions from your data. 0000004039 00000 n Field procedures, in other words, guidelines as to how the case study will be conducted. Data analysis and qualitative data research work a little differently from the numerical data as the quality data is made up of words, descriptions, images, objects, and sometimes symbols. The sources can include interviews, first-hand observation, surveys and document reviews. 2693) states that it is important to have a general analytic strategy, rather than hoping that patterns will emerge simply through studying and experimenting with the data. (2008), "Case selection techniques in case study research: a menu of qualitative and quantitative options", Political Research Quarterly, Vol. He or she needs to pay attention to multiple sources of evidence, and be able to handle complexity, and the possibility that new information may lead in a new direction, while at the same time not losing sight of the original research questions. Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources. Advantages of Case Study Method of Data Collection. In summary, the protocol should cover the following: You should have decided on the type of case, and type of design, and how your case(s) relate to the population studied, etc., at an earlier stage. You can also talk to experienced case study researchers you know in your department or through your network, and look at relevant scholarly articles. 0000015982 00000 n Another advantage of multiple case design is the methodological similarity with the experiment. Advertisements. Because research takes place "in the field", there is a close relationship between theory and what is happening on the ground. If case study research is never a soft option, the collection and analysis of data can be particularly challenging. Coding can be explained as categorization of data. The beginning of the research process is all about definition: not only your research question, but also your unit of analysis, which is the actual object or entity being studied. A protocol is a blueprint for a research instrument: for example, a survey questionnaire, or a set of questions for an interview. Construct validity can be improved by: 2. 2 No. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 7. 0000012692 00000 n The next step is, obviously, to share your findings with others by writing up your case study. If you are not part of a team, you may find it beneficial to attend a course on research methods for case studies, perhaps held by your institution or by an independent body. Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. 5 Case Studies and Data Angeliki Papachroni and Sean Lochrie The backbone of every research project is the collection of data that a researcher has identified as worthy of analysis. It is also important to have clarity in terms of the trail of evidence that leads from the research questions to the conclusions, and back again. one that can test a particular theory. It is used to improve the reliability of case study results.". A case study may be defined as an in-depth exploration of a phenomenon, an individual process or an event based on the context that uses multiple techniques for data collection and analysis. Because of the human element of case studies, interviews are one of the most important methods of case study research, and are almost always an element of the research design. According to Yin (2009, location no. Each case is treated as a separate study, and the resulting data are compared. What these methods have in common is the fact that they are designed to probe below the surface of what is being said, in other words to look at unconscious processes. 0000001869 00000 n This way of collecting data is very powerful, because the researcher is unobtrusive, and can therefore freely observe behaviour which is not "edited", as it might be in a laboratory setting, or when the interviewer's questions frame the response (Woodside, 2010, p. 406). A critical case – i.e. For example, a case could be about a school and its response to a new demographic trend or government edict, in which case it would be holistic. • Benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions to guide data collection and data analysis. A holistic case is one where the case is the unit of analysis; an embedded one is where there are several units of analysis in the case. Case studies are often seen as a "bolt-on" to a major research project, defining research questions or throwing further light on an issue that has been revealed by a survey. However, a case study protocol is more than an instrument: it is a combination of project outline and management document, research instrument, table as shell for data collection, and guidelines for the report. Getting insight from such complicated information is a complicated process. Data Collection And Analysis Paper. That explanatory research can offer an understanding of a phenomenon is viewed with scepticism by some, on the grounds that a single case study cannot yield a sufficient volume of evidence on which to generalise. It could even be something less tangible, such as a community, a decision, a project, or even a book marketing campaign. Essay searching website. Like the Yin (1994) strategy, the Miles and Huberman (1994) process of analysis of case study data, although quite detailed, may still be insufficient to guide the novice researcher. Pattern matching. _��L�P�4?R.v�ڴ@�I��r��_|U+-R�!�&�t���}?��5��M���.��p�3Gw�}��M׷�����^�1Ic��~��e�OCR�&��S���U7�c�� ��?�����Ѥ��8~�����ri:w��~5����L:�=����O�����v����eڡsױi]h��%u���w�Z&�w��[e���~4!�sgY�E~&?�+r^��� yޒ���)P���9�u Cepeda and Martin's view of conceptual frameworks and the research cycle (2005, p. 861). Qualitative data analysis is a search for general statements about relationships among categories of data." ���_��W�+�+�g�^d�W��J�v����x�S`�g����v>*�bR{�O�8�&f��` g�ێ 294-308. If within the school, several different classes were studied, then these sub-units, or "mini cases", would be embedded within the overall case. Woodside (2010) provides detailed accounts of several other methods: for example storytelling, visual narrative art, conversational analysis, and forced metaphor elicitation technique. 638-650). Another problem is that there is no end point for data collection, unlike, for example, the survey, where the parameters of the investigation are fixed by the number of responses (assuming the researcher considers the response rate to be satisfactory). The research may also continue for an extended period of time, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen. Information about the report/WP WP N° 3 Publication date: 31/01/2018 Report/WP title: Data collection instruments for case study Project Information Agreement no. Case studies are "real" – they offer a chance to get a snapshot of real life: a rich and thick picture. Descriptive: the case study is used to describe a particular phenomenon within its context. Both apply in case study research. This type of approach has the benefit of combining qualitative and quantitative research. Gerring, J. and McDermott, R. (2007), "An experimental template for case study research", American Journal of Political Science, Vol. Q�Cg�qoe�"��^����~� ive�h8��:�g@ � n��r 25-36. Research methods: case study analysis . It studies a social unit in its entire perspectives. 0000012916 00000 n Figure 1. Observations can be done of individuals within the case in their natural setting. 33-42. 0000033228 00000 n Woodside, A.G. (2010), Case Study Research: Theory, Methods and Practice, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, UK. This involves comparing a predicted pattern with one revealed by the outcome of the case study. It requires considerable skill on the part of the researcher, who needs to be adept at identifying and analysing data from a number of different sources. Download Citation. This helped to enhance the reliability of this study. This is known as analytical generalisation. endstream endobj 757 0 obj<> endobj 758 0 obj<>stream Qiannan Zhang, Tian Huang, Yongxin Zhu, and Meikang Qiu . Opoku and Williams (2011, pp. Yin, R.K. (2003), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 3rd ed., Sage, London. Also, the unit must be at the same level as the object of the proposition (Gerring and McDermott, 2007). This helps with triangulation, where different lines of enquiry converge, with the findings of one set of data corroborating another. 0000028122 00000 n Since more than one case will have been used for a reason, it is obviously necessary to compare findings across cases in order to reach valid conclusions. This method is applicable to any case research which employs at least two cases. A large project with multiple cases, or a complex single case with much data collection, for example, may require a team of research assistants. Following are the advantage of case study Method. Yin, R.K. (2006), "Case study methods", in Green, J.L., Camilli, G. and Elmore, P.B. 2 No. Providing that these data are central to the case study and to any propositions you are investigating, combining statistical and qualitative analysis will offer a strong strategy. 295-296) claim that the selection of cases has the same objectives as random sampling in that what is desired is a representative sample and useful variation on the dimensions of theoretical interest. The analysis of qualitative data is covered in the guide, "How to ... analyse qualitative data", which may provide some useful hints. Case studies involve research about humans and their actions, and you need to take special care to protect your subjects from any harm resulting from your research. Data Collection Techniques •Data collection techniques allow us to systematically collect information about our objects of study (people, objects, phenomena) and about the settings in which they occur. One can ask themselves, "How do we prevent this from happening again?" 25 No. Then, additional cases are examined to see if they contribute to the theory. Woodside (2010, p. 107) maintains that a multiple methods approach is essential in order to elicit both conscious and unconscious thinking processes.